The magnitude-6.8 quake centred on the town of Sivrice in Elazig province caused buildings to collapse and killed 31 people and injured more than 1,600 others.
The region struck by the quake, some 550km east of the capital Ankara, is remote and sparsely populated, so details of damage and fatalities could be slow to emerge.
About 500,000 people felt strong to very strong shaking, the USGS reported. The earthquake was felt in several other countries, including Iraq, Syria and Lebanon.
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